It’s easy to spot Dutch architecture in the Cape of South Africa thanks to the long and complicated history between these two nations. But of course, these buildings also have an African twist.
The Dutch colonial connection with South Africa in many ways shaped the multi-cultural demographics that this African nation has today, producing, for example, the Afrikaans language. But perhaps what is lesser known is the architectural legacy that the Dutch settlers left in South Africa, which you can still see today.
South African wine is world-renowned, with the hills and valleys of the Cape providing the perfect landscape and climate for excellent grapes. Many of these farms were established in the 1600s by retired Dutch East India (VOC) employees — Dutchmen tired of the merchant life and ready to settle down under the warm African sun.
This style is known as Cape Dutch architecture, in which you can see the Dutch influence in the facades and roofs of the buildings. Of course, these are wider than the skinny Amsterdam houses you’ll find in Holland and were painted white to help keep them cool under the baking heat.
The Dutch fort in Cape Town
Kasteel de Goede Hoop (Castle of Good Hope) was built by the Dutch East India Company in what is now Cape Town. Built between 1666 and 1679, the castle is known as the oldest surviving building in South Africa.
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But this was not the first military structure built by the Dutch here. In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck, commander of the first wave of Dutch settlers, built Fort de Goede Hoop upon their arrival in the Cape. However, the fort was built with just clay and timber, so plans were soon in place to build the stone castle that still stands today.
Notice the star shape typical in other Dutch forts, like Fort Bourtange in Groningen or the fortified town of Naarden in North Holland.
The restoration of this site has been controversial over the years. The castle represents colonial powers which drove the Khoekhoe people from their homelands and forced many to become serfs on Dutch farms. On the other hand, many Afrikaans people see Jan van Riebeeck as a founding father of South Africa.
In 1679, the Dutch Governor of the Cape Colony, Simon van der Stel, established the town of Stellenbosch, naming it after himself and the bos (forest) that stood there. But it was only in 1866 that a gymnasium known as Het Stellenbossche Gymnasium would be built, which was later transformed into Stellenbosch University (SU).
Stellenbosch is the oldest university in South Africa and is consistently one of the highest ranking universities in Africa. The Times Higher Education (THE) ranked SU at 251 in the world for 2021, and third in Africa for the same year.
Above is an image of the old administrative building of SU, which perhaps reminds you of a certain government building in The Hague?
Fishermen’s cottages in the Eastern Cape
These humble homes along the eastern coastline of the Cape are simpler than the grand wine estates we saw earlier. The natural harbours drew Dutch fishermen to the area, who built settlements such as Struisbaai.
Struisbaai has the longest beach in the Southern Hemisphere at 14 kilometres long. It was a notoriously treacherous area to sail through, with at least 30 vessels wrecking there since 1673. Today, Struisbaai remains a fishing town mostly untouched by over-development.
Looking at the houses, you’ll see echoes of traditional Dutch cottages but again painted white for the heat. Thatched roofs also help to keep the interior cool.
Bo-Kaap colourful houses
Bo-Kaap (meaning above the Cape in Afrikaans) is a residential area in Cape Town with a history as colourful as the houses here. It sits on a hill overlooking the city centre, and was formerly known as the Malay Quarter because Asian slaves brought from Indonesia and Malaysia by the Dutch lived here.
The houses are a mixture of Cape Dutch and Cape Georgian styles and were originally painted white. But when slavery in the British colonies was abolished in 1833, and ex-slaves were finally permitted to buy property, they painted these houses in every colour of the rainbow to celebrate their freedom.
Today, Bo-Kaap is seen as the birthplace of Cape Malay culture, with 56.9% of its population being Muslim. According to the South African Heritage Resources Agency, this is the oldest surviving residential neighbourhood in Cape Town. It was declared a National Heritage Site in 2019.
Whilst South African architecture is certainly unique, the Dutch influence is undeniable. These are just a few of our favourite examples of Dutch architecture in South Africa, but there are, of course, many more!
Do you know any more examples of Dutch architecture in South Africa? Tell us in the comments below!
Feature Image: Jean van der Meulen/Pixabay