Calvinism in the Netherlands: why are the Dutch so Calvinist in nature?

Atheist but Calvinist. 🙏

Travelling around the Netherlands, you’ll spot tons of beautiful churches, and meet people living simply and modestly — or as some might say, quite Calvinist. So, you might be puzzled to discover that the Dutch are in fact very atheist. How did this culture come about?

With a largely atheist population strongly rooted in religious culture and tradition, you can easily end up visiting nightclubs and bars in the Netherlands, only to find out that they were once churches!

While it may be difficult to imagine for some, the fact remains that if you observe the non-religious Dutch closely, you’ll definitely notice a Calvinist nature.

But, before we go any further on the Calvinist nature of the Dutch, let’s find out what Calvinism is all about.

First things first, what is Calvinism?

Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the teachings of 16th-century theologian John Calvin.

The Westerkerk, a Calvinist church in Amsterdam. Image: Depositphotos

While the core doctrines are predestination and election, its basic principle is that the Bible must be interpreted by itself. This means that the parts that are harder to understand are explained in other passages.

Simply put if you don’t understand a passage in the Bible, just read on. You’ll understand it later.

How does Calvinism relate to the Dutch?

It is no secret that the Netherlands has been a Protestant nation since the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Martin Luther and John Calvin’s teachings were very popular among the Dutch.

Even in the period when King Henry VIII of England was having a feud with the Catholic Church, the region that is now the Netherlands was already a strong Protestant part of Europe.

It’s also important to note that William of Orange was a Calvinist. Furthermore, the Eighty Years’ War wasn’t just a war of independence. It was also a war between the Spanish Catholics and William of Orange’s Protestant Calvinists.

This is not to say that everyone who fought under William of Orange in the Eighty Years’ War was a Calvinist. However, the majority fought on his side because they disliked the Spanish and their strange Catholic ways.

Martin Luther and reformers. Image: Art UK/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

Calvinism arrived in what is now the Netherlands in the 1540s, when both the nobles and the common folk converted.

Under Phillip II, the Spanish government started harsh persecution campaigns against the Dutch. As a reaction to this persecution, the Calvinist population rebelled.

History buffs never forget the Beeldenstorm in 1566, which refers to the wave of disorderly attacks that spread rapidly through the Low Countries from south to north, carried out by Calvinists in the summer of 1566.

READ MORE | Dutch history hacked: 2500 years of Dutch life in 7 minutes (VIDEO INSIDE)

These Calvinist Protestants destroyed Catholic art and many forms of church fittings and decorations. It was in that same year that William of Orange started the Eighty Years’ War in order to liberate the Calvinist Dutch from the Catholic Spaniards.

There was definitely little love for Catholics or Catholicism in the Netherlands back then, and driving the Spanish away was one extraordinary way of showing it.

Atheism in the Netherlands

It is already an established fact that most Dutch people are not very religious today. I’m pretty sure more Dutch people have read Harry Potter than the Bible, and the majority of them probably only say Jesus Christ (Jesus Christus!), out of frustration rather than in a moment of prayer.

Still, religion in the Netherlands remains an interesting topic of discussion.

Many religious people live in the so-called Bible Belt. Image: Freepik

Results of research carried out at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in 2016 showed a steady decline in the number of Christians or believers in the Netherlands. This has led to the Netherlands no longer being seen as a Christian nation.

In 2021, research by the CBS (Central Statistics Bureau) showed that most Dutch people neither attend church nor believe in God. It also stated that there were more irreligious people (55.4%) than believers in the Netherlands.

But the question still remains: how is it that a nation with an atheist majority lives so much by the teachings of a religious preacher? Before we answer that, let’s talk about who John Calvin was.

Calvinism in the Netherlands: who was John Calvin?

John Calvin was a French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology that came to be known as Calvinism.

Being one of the fathers of Protestantism, he played a major role in how the Netherlands went on to become a Protestant nation. Although born into a family of the Catholic faith, he converted to Protestantism in 1533 after studying philosophy, humanism, and law.

John Calvin’s teachings remain followed in the Netherlands. Image: Unsplash

While John Calvin may never have set foot in the country, his teachings in the period of the Protestant Reformation found fertile soil in the Netherlands. In fact, almost every political party in the late 1800s adopted his teachings.

Despite him not being Dutch, the Dutch feel great when his name is mentioned. For whatever reason, they see him as one of their own.

So why do the Dutch, who aren’t really religious, follow the teachings of John Calvin?

If you’re a foreigner observing the Dutch, you’ll notice how hardworking, frugal, and straightforward they are. A look into the history books will tell you that the Dutch statesman and theologian Abraham Kuyper played a big role in reviving Calvinism in the late 1800s.

READ MORE | The Dutch Bible Belt: what’s that all about?

A true believer in the separation of church and state, he and other lawmakers of his time took it upon themselves to follow in the footsteps of Calvin in breaking the yoke of Catholicism in the country.

Their reforms (which were very Calvinist in nature) laid the foundation of what the Netherlands is today

The Dutch (Calvinist) nature

The Dutch were able to build a society based on respectfulness, acceptance, self-discipline, and efficiency. It’s a country where hard work is valued, justice can be served, and talents are nurtured.

If you lend a Dutch person money, they’ll typically pay you back straight away (thanks to the wonders of Tikkie). Not because they think you would go broke without the money they borrowed, but because of the principle attached to it. Being orderly and straightforward is a way of life, without losing sight of open-mindedness.

Your word is your bond, and if you don’t live up to your word, you will definitely be confronted.

READ MORE | Why don’t the Dutch like to use curtains?

The best of both worlds

The Netherlands is a perfect example of how you can be an atheist liberal (or progressive) and still live by the moral teachings of a religious preacher. It is a testament to the fact that even if one is an atheist, one can still choose to take on good things from any religion.

Even years after the death of John Calvin and the Dutch statesmen who laid the foundation of the society we know today, it is evident that, while religious beliefs may not hold sway in the Netherlands, their virtues still linger.

The Netherlands is one of the world’s most liberal nations, yet its inhabitants are generally described as sober, reserved, rule-driven, and well-disciplined: all typical Calvinist characteristics.

Calvinism in the Netherlands is no longer as tied to religious beliefs as it once was, but Calvinism has nevertheless developed into a way of life for the Dutch.

What is your experience with Calvinism in the Netherlands? Tell us in the comments below!

Feature Image:Depositphotos
Chuka Nwanazia
Chuka Nwanazia
A renegade wordsmith, freelance writer, poet, and digital marketer based in Amsterdam. Besides writing, he extremely enjoys traveling around Europe in search of old and rare books, writing poems while riding the train to nowhere, performing at poetry events, spending too much time reading books, contemplating the meaning of life, preparing tasty dishes and desserts, and searching for the perfect bookshelf.

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    • Because the sensible, practical Dutch see no reason to subscribe to a set of religious practices that do not add anything to their daily lives.

  1. Thank you Chuka for your insightful article. Being the product of Calvinist upbringing in the Netherlands myself I recognize many of your observations. My brother and I grew up in the bible belt of the Netherlands in the 1960s and 1970s.We were not allowed to watch television on Sundays or to ride a bicycle. At age 16 I realized the hypocrisy of the church and left it behind. My brother became an active atheist; I would call myself more of an agnostic. However, the values that the church and my parents tried to instill, are still with us. My brother and I have always been very socially and politically engaged. I worked in non-profit all my life. One of my peeves is that religions often claim the moral high ground. A University of Chicago study from 2015 found that Religious belief appears to have negative influence on children’s altruism and judgments of others’ actions. The Dutch seem to underline that living without religion can be quite OK.

    • Hello Willem,

      You’re very welcome. Thanks for the comment. I do love the Dutch spirit and Calvinist nature. I love how morally upright the Dutch can be without being religious at all. You have all set an example for the world to see that if people can’t be “morally upright” without religion, then what they lack isn’t a religion, it’s a conscience.

      • There is a big problem however. When money gets added to government power, the Calvinist cocktail becomes poisonous, all moral uprightness gets thrown out the window and Dutch civil servants and judges will seek to crush anyone who stands in front of a bag of gold. See toeslagenaffaire, De Winter report about child protective services, or talk to anyway caught up in false debt collection law cases. The result of all that is that innocent people live miserable lives in The Netherlands and develop mental disorders, commit suicide or else flee from injustice like I did.
        Please be warned and stay alert if you are living in The Netherlands.

  2. “because they disliked the Spanish and their strange and Catholic ways.” You mean because Spain decided burning everyone who wasn’t catholic.

  3. I think, Before Calvin got influential in the Netherlands, the nature of the Dutch, Catholic or Protestant or non-believer, was already: hardworking, no-nonsense and conscientious . That made up for the teachings of Calvin being so successful: it rang true and was easily recognizable for the Dutch. It’s almost like the question of the chicken and the egg: which came first?
    That is why those characteristics are still seen in the Dutch today, even when they are non-religious.

    • My parents both came from staunch Dutch reformed churches in Genemuiden and Zwartsluis . My wife , who happens to be 20 years older than me , was born and raised in Arnham NL from 1942 until 1963 . The year I was born in Canada . During our many world settling conversations she always came back to something called ‘The Poulder Principle’ (I may not do it justice in describing) But it was how a land owner would find the high ground and build from there . Those of his employ , built around that . And all worked towards the success , or health , of the whole of them . But more importantly every individual played an essential and required role , lest those not so into it [be] carried by others . All would be well . That principle carried so much weight at times , that even as towns grew , if ever a heavy rain should fill the streets with water virtually every living soul effected came out with brooms and began sweeping this water to the nearest drainage where pumps or windmills could carry it further away . And it is said (by her , my wife) that nonspecific head counts were taken and if a family came out 4 strong instead of 5 , if need be someone from outside that family made sure that individual came out and did his fair share . I think that is the underlying theme to the Dutch . No matter what label or title it is given

  4. I have a Catholic background but I am atheist now like most of us. I am happy with the way you describe us all as Calvinists even if we were/are Catholic.

    The anymosity between the Catholic and Protestant churches has dissapeared because few people go there anymore. That is a good thing, I think.

    I have some spiritual outlets, I still pray to Maria and I sometimes chant with my wife who is a Budist. When I am in China or India, I like to pay my respect to local Gods too. Here in Brazil I like Iemanja. She is the Godess of the sea.

  5. Greetings and many thanks to you for this interesting article. I have some remarks, though. I am a Spanish citizen.

    Firstly, I totally believe you when you say Wilhelm of Orange started the 80 years war. However, was the rising in 1566 meant against the Spanish or rather against the Catholics, or both? Who were the citizens who attended Catholic Services in churches under attack in 1566, where they Dutch, Flemish, Wallonians? Or were the Low Countries populated by Spanish colonists in 1566?

    Secondly, where was Charles V born and raised, Philip II’s father? Which were Charles’ first and second languages? (Neither was Spanish).

    Thirdly, was there in force, in the 16th century, under Spanish kings (of Flemish, German and Burgundian ancestry as well) any prohibition to sell Flemish or Dutch goods in Spain?

    By the way, you say the Dutch followed Calvin’s steps as to separation of Church and State. Really??? For one thing, did Calvin have nothing to do with the Government and Courts of Geneva for decades? Didn’t you say William of Orange was himself a Calvinist? Were the Dutch kings after himself and until today godless?

    Finally, do you know how many governors of the Low countries between 1496 and 1713 were NOT Spanish?

    Many other questions should be asked. It is very easy to find the answer by a little research in reliable sources; and I mind not only Spanish sources. Nothing from what I propose to verify is incompatible with the virtues and bravery of the Belgian or Dutch people in any way.


  6. Who sentenced Miguel Servet, an Aragonese doctor and philosopher, to be burned at the stake on a heap of GREEN branches and twigs? You would be surprised.

  7. Hi Chuka Nwanazia, delighted to come across this piece of yours. I was born (long ago :=) ) in Eindhoven in a Belgian-Dutch ‘border family’ which for centuries went back and forth living on either side of the border, intermarrying and so on. So of course we are of Catholic extraction, and culturally and historically really belonged to what is now Belgium. The provinces of Noord Brabant and Limburg were in the 17th century, at the end of the wars of religion, annexed by ‘Holland’ (as we still call the Northern Dutch) as a military buffer zone against the Catholic countries in the South. The Catholic cult was forbidden, churches confiscated and all the way till the time of Belgian independence in 1830 the region was often under military rule. For a long time Protestant missionaries came to convert the Southern locals – one example was the father of Vincent van Gogh – but they never succeeded. That is the first intimation that culture and not just religion was at stake. Moreover, there was no support from the ruling classes in the North for economic development, unless they could make money out of it such as in the case of the coal mines in Limburg. If Eindhoven became a big, prosperous city, it was thanks to the resolve of the locals (such as the family Philips or van Doorn of DAF and others, as well as a motivated work force), not because of solidarity from up North. The ‘tolerance’ Holland always proclaims being so proud of, also wore very thin with prejudice being not only verbal but institutional. As children in the ’50s and ’60s we were told we were ‘colonized’ by ‘Holland’ and our parents were outraged that ‘our history’ did not appear, or merely in a few sentences, in our school history books while in our geography books our farmers were treated as backward little potato growers on our sandy soils and compared with the prosperous farmers of the North on their rich ‘kleigrond’ or polders. Of course according to good old Dutch customs, all this couched in a religious framework. However, even as children, we already understood it was really a matter of culture with its roots in religion, but not only. It was more a matter of culture and mentality; in our eyes rigid, domineering Calvinist culture vs more easy-going and compromise-inclined Catholic culture.
    But it was also regional. E.g. my mother was from a Catholic family in Haarlem. We called them ‘Calvinist Catholics’ because they had the same rigidity as Calvinists and took the Roman Church’s dogma really literally. To our astonishment. Because this wasn’t the case of my father’s family and the majority of people in the South. where there was a tendency to ignore or get around dogma that people considered their own business such as contraception, divorce and even sometimes remarriage (in the church!). But Catholics generally did like their rituals which is not amazing as their culture bathed in some 2000 years history. So even now, with by far most people not practicing – whether they call themselves atheists or nominal Catholics – they often still go to church for the rituals of baptism, marriage and funeral, as one can observe in Belgium and most other ‘Catholic countries’. Of course such things are anathema to a Calvinist mentality…

    More in general, I always found it hard to understand that Calvinist culture. In my youth, there was in fact little or no contact. Even it’s literature remained opaque to me with it’s themes of rebellion against the Bible quoting patriarch and rigid family and sexual life. In fact it’s only by contact with Afrikaners in South Africa that I became a bit more familiar with it. But many Afrikaners have had to question many aspects of their Calvinist culture and traditions which I guess the Dutch hardly ever had to do. That’s why your piece is so refreshing!
    I haven’t lived in the Netherlands for very many years, but reading you I am not amazed that you find a ‘Calvinist nature’ in ‘the’ Dutch in general, of whatever religious extraction they might be. The few times I have been back in the South, I had the impression that, probably through mass communication and internal migration, many ‘indigenous’ people there have in recent years pretty much assimilated that dominant Calvinist ‘nature’, even linguistically when they want to speak ‘nicely’ – which sounds horribly harsh and in their case even a bit treacherous in my ears! So ‘Calvinist nature’ might actually have become a ‘national’ culture as you say. And as I have a few grandchildren living in the North, I see that our Southern history is still largely ignored in their school programmes…. So there is a little angle to your findings – at least in the eyes of offspring of a Southern ‘border family’ like mine – that is not so pretty: it is what my parents’ generation call a successful colonisation :=)

    • This is very interesting for me to read. I am an American who lived for a full year with a Dutch family in Brabant in 1972-1973. They were a Catholic family, of course, and the father in that family was from Belgium. I was also raised as a Catholic. So much of what you describe here rings true to my experience in NL. I now teach a course very other summer (since 2014) in Leiden, and it is clearly not just time but also culture that is different for me there. I am still close with my Dutch “sister”, who has lived in Amsterdam for years but still espouses the values, language, and religious customs if the south. In my experience, there is a significant cultural difference between north and south, even today. I feel it when I visit Brabant. I love it there.

    • Hello, quite curious how the Afrikaners from South Africa influnce your view? Do you live in SA now?

      I am from South African, Afrikaner and quite curious about the influnce to your view. Now currently living on Den Bosch.

  8. Great article.

    I am still trying to find answers to the following questions:

    1) why was Protestantism brought to Holland through Calvin (and not Luther or Zwingli)

    2) why and when did Dutch people leave for America?

    3) where did the Dutch settle in America?

    4) When was the CRC – Christian Reformed Church – founded in America?

    5) Why are most CRC members in America of Dutch origin?

    Thanks for your input.

  9. Seichi, you might find answers to some of your questions in a book titled “Dutch Chicago”. Although broadly focused on Chicago, it covers how the Dutch came to America and then the Midwest. As someone who is American, but 100% Dutch background, I find articles like this one and books like Dutch Chicago illuminating. I’m second generation here in the States, but grew up in an all “Dutch enclave”. Dutch school, church, neighbors, bank, etc. The values and characteristics listed in this article are still true of the Dutch here in America.

  10. There are about 50% more Catholics than Protestants now, which makes Catholicism the major Christian movement. But there are even more Athiests. I think, the endless conflict between Catholics and Protestants in the Netherlands may made so many people choosing to step out religion completely. In Germany for example, there was much more tolerance and cooperation between Catholics and Protestants after 1648, even with sharing churches and facilities. The Dutch Calvinists were much less tolerant than the German Lutherans, even in Amsterdam Catholics had to hold there celebrations in hidden places, in the more tolerant City of Hamburg or Dresden for example, they openly lived next to each other.

    • According to latest ststistics from 2015 only 43.8 % dutch are christians among them 23.7 % catholics and 20.1% Protestants (wiki and elsewhere) So your claim that there are 50% more caths in netherlands is a lie. Also in your catholic and protestant friendly germany catholics and protestants are both about 30% each, so no much difference. While in your catholic france which massacred Evangelical Christians catholics are now only 41% of the population, while Evangelicals are increasing.

      So get your facts and history right.

      Protestant revolution was not the origin of Protestantism.The first protestant church was the apostolic church. The church depicted in New Testament Bible do not pray to “saints” or use statues\images in prayer,worship or have other lies like compulsory celibacy,purgatory,transubstantiation,Apostolic succession etc. Thus the original Apostolic God’s Church was Protestant/Evangelical in essence.

      Later in 4th century AD Constantine the then Roman emperor- Constantine gave Christianity a special status in his empire because of a vision he had.But majority in his empire was still pagan and they found it hard to forgo of their old idolatrous practices. So by about 5th century AD, the Roman state changed the names of their old idols to “christian” names and continued to use them in prayer/worship . This came to be known as “intercession/veneration to saints” and is still practiced by catholic and orthodox ‘Christians’.

      Also true Christianity never promotes idolatry -practice of intercession/veneration of saints by catholic/orthodox sects. God’s word is very clear that this practice does amount to idolatry according to Exodus 20:3-5, Romans 9:18-32, Revelation 9:20 and according to Revelation 21:8 , idolaters along with other sins like idolatry, lies, unbelief, cowardice, murder, occult magic .

      Also promotion of homosexuality, immodest dressing of women and female pastors by mainline protestant churches in western countries are unbiblical lies and are sexual immoralities that leads to eternal hell fire – Revelation 21:8

      So we must all repent of our sins , leave them and turn to God almighty for our salvation, by trusting in the sinless blood of Lord Jesus Christ shed on the cross at Calvary , Jerusalem some 2000 years ago for the remission sins of all mankind , so that all who will trust in Lord Jesus Christ will have eternal life.

      Protestant revolution was not the origin of Protestantism.The first protestant church was the apostolic church. The church depicted in New Testament Bible do not pray to “saints” or use statues\images in prayer,worship or have other lies like compulsory celibacy,purgatory,transubstantiation,Apostolic succession etc. Thus the original Apostolic God’s Church was Protestant/Evangelical in essence.

      Later in 4th century AD Constantine the then Roman emperor- Constantine gave Christianity a special status in his empire because of a vision he had.But majority in his empire was still pagan and they found it hard to forgo of their old idolatrous practices. So by about 5th century AD, the Roman state changed the names of their old idols to “christian” names and continued to use them in prayer/worship . This came to be known as “intercession/veneration to saints” and is still practiced by catholic and orthodox ‘Christians’ .Other pagan to christian transmutations include changing of Solar mass of December 25th to Christ mass,changing of fertility goddess Ishtar festival to Easter.

      It was during this 5th century religious transmutation for power consolidation of state this Christ Mass- Solar Mass, Passover- God Friday, Resurrection – Sunday Easter, intercession/veneration of saints ,Mary-Venus, changed. Thus in 5th century AD, the initial heresy entered Global (Catholic) God’s Church corrupting its western part as heretic idolatrous Roman catholic sect, but eastern part stayed true as Church of East (Assyrian/Chaldean) although Orthodox sects later fell for catholic idolatry but didn’t submit Pope.

      Catholic idolatrous heretic sect committed doctrinal corruption and chaos when they started the idolatrous practice of intercession/veneration of saints and the many lies like purgatory with which they try to defend that idolatry in 5th century AD on wards , when they left the true God’s Global (Catholic) church of East and West. Now the remaining one true God’s Church is the Church of East (from Apostolic times till the present times) and the innumerable sects that have either abstained from catholic idolatrous doctrinal chaos from 5th century on wards and catholics themselves coming out of idolatry and lies and trusting in Lord Jesus Christ so that they will have eternal life by hearing God’s Eternal Word for salvation of all mankind who will trust in Lord Jesus Christ- Holy Bible.

      These true Christians at that time and after 5th century AD, were against this idolatrous corruption of God’s Church that leads to eternal hell fire (Revelation 21.8).They included early Jewish Christians , Donatists (North Africa,Southern Europe), Manichaen’s (middle east,central Asia) who existed from 1st-15th century AD,opposed this idolatrous practice of intercession/veneration of saints but catholics branded them heretics and massacred them.Assyrian church of East and Chaldean Syrian Church known commonly as Church of East(existed from apostolic times till today mainly in middle east,central Asia,India and China- and thus form the only Christian group that has existed continuously for last 2000 years) also opposed this idolatrous practice of intercession/veneration of saints.

      Later Paulicians & Bogomils who existed from 6-12th century AD were against this idolatrous practice .After that Cathars who existed from 11-13th century AD, Waldensians , Hussites & Protestants who exist from 11th century AD till this day, were against this idolatrous practice and other unscriptural lies of catholic/orthodox sects.First Iconoclastic movement of (7th-8th century) century AD by Paulicians and Bogomils was against this practice, later Protestant revolution-2nd iconoclastic movement (15-16th century) was waged mainly against this practice.

      Thus when Constantine gave Christianity special status in his empire,idolatry also entered along with it in the unsuspecting name of “intercession to saints”.This soon spread to most of the church,because such was the influence of roman empire at that time.But few like early Jewish Christians(existed from apostolic times to 8th century AD),Assyrian church of East and Chaldean Syrian Church known commonly as Church of East(existed from apostolic times till today- and thus form the only Christian group that has existed continuously for last 2000 years), Donatists (North African Christians) and followers of Mani ~ Manichean’s (Mani was a 2nd century apostle of Jesus whose followers spread from Persia to Balkans in the west and to China in the east,before falling into oblivion probably because of Islamic conquest by about 15th century AD) remained true to the gospel of Lord Jesus Christ,despite severe persecutions from Catholic/Orthodox sects.

      Later remnants of these Christians spread to Turkey and Balkans where they were called Paulicians and Bogomils respectively in 6th century AD.They were behind the Iconoclastic movement of 7-8th century(Protestant-Christian revolution of 16th century is considered by scholars to be the 2nd Iconoclastic movement).

      Both these groups came under heavy persecution from Catholics because they dared to expose the truth of Christ to them.

      Finally they were wiped out by catholic crusaders,en route to capture Jerusalem by a secret directive from Vatican in 12th century,perhaps the real intention of antichristians aka Catholics for taking up crusades was to wipe out true christian like Paulcians , Bogomils , Assyrian & Chaldean church of east, followers of Apostle Mani etc. who exposed the idolatry and lies of catholic sect.

      But almost simultaneously,the spirit of God started 2 new christian movements in heart of Catholicism itself~in Italy and France in 11th century AD .

      In Italy they were called Waldensians and in France they were called Cathars .Cathars were wiped out in the 12th century by catholic crusaders~a mass murder popularly called as Cathar/Albunesian crusade (catholic church still take great “evil” pride in these crusades) .But Italian Waldensians continued to survive despite of severe catholic persecution and they remain to this day .

      By 15th century printing was invented and bible became available to masses . The ignorant masses came to know about truth that catholic church was doing idolatry in the name of God and following unbiblical lies.

      They revolted and it came to be known as protestant revolution and were led by many great leaders like Jan Hus,Jan Zizka,Martin Luther,Ulrich Zwingli,John Calvin,Petr Chelcisky ,John Knox,John Wesley and many others .

      So we must all repent of our sins , leave them and turn to God almighty for our salvation, by trusting in the sinless blood of Lord Jesus Christ shed on the cross at Calvary , Jerusalem some 2000 years ago for the remission sins of all mankind , so that all who will trust in Lord Jesus Christ will have eternal life. All mankind are sinners through Adam and Eve’s sin of eating forbidden fruit in Garden of Eden (Romans 3:23).

      1000’s of Bible prophecies have been fulfilled till date according to secular historic data, Jesus himself fulfilled more than 300 messianic prophecies, thus proving he is the Christ /Messiah,1000’s of miracle healings happen throughout the world , few of which gets reported in christian media,is all open for verification and certified credible by many.
      Here are some of those 1000s of Bible prophecies that were fulfilled at

      Read the Holy Bible – God’s eternal word and pray to our almighty God repenting of our sins and leaving them and humbling ourselves before God almighty trusting in the sinless blood of Lord Jesus Christ shed on the cross at Calvary , Jerusalem some 2000 years ago for the remission sins of all mankind , so that all who will trust in Lord Jesus Christ will have eternal life.

      • That was lengthy. The ultrareligious should join religious orders, if not, get out of the way. A degree from a Bible College nets nothing but student loans and I assume you have a family to support

        • Why would you claim Assyrian Church of the east diesnt practice intercession if saunts or Narian veneration? That’s plain wrong. Also this is a hilarious Protestant cope to claim manicheans and donatists as your own spiritual legacy.

  11. It is not surprising that in a country with very few natural resources and which has basically been scraped out of the mud and every brick counts, the greater egalitarianism and distaste for excess which though more typical of protestantism than Catholicism should come to be rules of thumb for the population as a whole regardless of any religious identity.

  12. Dear Chuka,

    I wanted commend, thank, and salute you for your brilliant and insightful article on Calvinism and the Netherlands!

    On a very related front regarding Calvinism, I just sent the following letter to about 50 churches in the Netherlands, as I am researching and surveying views in modern times re John Calvin and Calvinism in the Netherlands for a chapter in my upcoming book and documentary on Calvin.

    If you care to answer any of the questions in the letter, that would be great too!

    Kindest regards in Christ,

    James Sundquist

    From: James Sundquist
    Subject: Calvinism, Baptism Musical Instruments in Worship questions in Churches in The Netherlands
    Date: April 30, 2020 at 3:30:00 PM EDT

    Dear Christian Churches in the Netherlands,

    I just this week discovered your churches. I just have 4 questions for you, where you are Dutch Reformed, Baptist, Catholic, or any other denomination:

    1. Why would any kind of Baptist not totally reject John Calvin and have no association with even his name who burned people at the stake for opposing infant baptism?

    2. As you know, The Netherlands is where Reformed Theology TULIP originated then spread throughout Europe, Africa, and America. But of the billions of tulips sold from there every year, wasn’t there at least one wise among them to inform them to inform them that a tulip has only 3 petals and to this day no one has exposed this?

    3. Conrad Mbewe a black leading pastor in Zambia is championing Calvinism taking over Africa. But Calvinism is responsible for white supremacy Dutch Reformed Church in Africa and corrupting Curse of Ham racism plague that also infected America my country. Can you explain this?

    4. Calvin banned and condemned the use of musical instruments in worship, calling it an abomination. So why do so many Reformed, and all other Baptist Denominations and so many other denominations, use musical instruments in worship in defiance of John Calvin?

    • As far as #4 – There have certainly been developments and changes in Reformed Protestant Christianity since the times of Calvin. Music is definitely one of them. I never read that Calvin banned or condemned musical instruments. Anyway, we’re talking more than 500 years ago. While visual imagery is very prominent in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, music is what’s most prominent in traditional Protestant churches. The best choirs, hymns, brass instruments and pipe organs are often found in Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, and Episcopal / Anglican churches.

      Martin Luther, contrary to what you wrote about Calvin, actually encouraged musical instruments in worship; since he believed that sacred music would surely not be wanted by the devil – that Satan would hate it. Scottish Presbyterians (following Reformed Calvinism like the Dutch) as well as English and Welsh Methodists were influenced by Anglican hymns and congregational singing, music playing. One of the most known (and lovely) hymns we have in English called “We Gather Together” is actually from Dutch Reformed Protestants. It’s original name is “Wilt heden nu treden”. Many of us traditional or mainline Protestants do not consider Baptists Protestant, as they do not align themselves to either Lutheran, Reformed, Anabaptist or Anglican liturgical traditions; although there are Baptists who have a strong affinity towards Calvinism.

      As far as #3 – The idea that Calvinism or the original Dutch Reformed Church was responsible for “white supremacy”, whether in Africa or America, is ridiculous and unfounded. Just because many white South Africans were / are Dutch Reformed Christians (and French Huguenots) does not imply that Calvinism is linked to white supremacy. If Conrad Mbewe is championing Calvinism taking over Africa, then that is a good thing! The Protestant work ethic, plus being self-reliant, frugal, and responsible for your own actions in the eyes of God is exactly what is needed in much of Africa. Ethical capitalism and transparency can be attributed to Dutch Calvinists, too – other practices Africa needs to put into action. Calvinists do not put up with corruption, pointing blame at others, and laziness.

  13. The Protestants oppressed Catholics, but Catholicism was not as asserted here abandoned completely by the Dutch. It was very strong in the south, and resulted in Belgium breaking away; and even so, a very strong Catholic underground continued in Holland.

    • “The Protestants oppressed Catholics” is a rather generalizing statement. The declaration of 20 December 1581 officially prohibited the *overt* practice of the Catholic religion. So, of course, practicing Catholics had hidden Mass and went “underground” as a result. Or they headed further south. Were they tortured, killed, burned at the stake at the same rate as Protestants were in Catholic Europe? Absolutely not. During this period, the Dutch still had some level of religious tolerance, even if it was “practice your Catholicism in private”.

      Dutch Calvinists rejected Catholicism in the Netherlands (re: the Beeldenstorm) partially due to the rebellion against Catholic Spain, but also because of a distaste for the power, corruption, hierarchy and “mystical” / non-Biblical elements of the RC Church.

  14. Re a Dutchman expecting repayment of a loan in full and on time, merely for principal’s sake, and this being a Calvinist way of doing things: do you think Jesus would insist on it?

    • I think in this case the emphasis is on the self-discipline of the loan recipient, not necessarily on the enforcement from the lender. In other words, it’s a standard to which one holds oneself, and a reflection of one’s self-discipline, moral conviction, and empathy/consideration toward the lender. I think a Calvinist would be likely to tell you that Jesus is merciful and forgiving, but that’s not a good reason to take liberties with your promises. It’s a very practical worldview — the other person probably misses the money and deserves to be able to make plans with his/her own property, so give it back on time.

  15. Touché! You’ve hit the nail of the “Calvinist Contradiction” squarely on its head, IMO! I grew up in a Frisian family in which my mother was brought up as a strict Calvinist Gereformeerde (Christian Reformed). My dad was a more ‘liberal’, ‘lefty’, Herformde (Dutch Reformed) minister. That said, “Your word is your bond and if you don’t live up to your word, you will definitely be confronted”, was very much a part of my upbringing. I can remember my dad getting really pissed off when someone would promise him something or other and then renege. To this day, and perhaps to my detriment, I live by that principle. I never promise someone anything unless I am absolutely certain I can deliver on that promise.

  16. I grew up as a Dutch Calvinist in Michigan. Can anyone here provide any firsthand knowledge on the attitude toward sex (esp. within marriage) among Calvinists in the Netherlands in the 50s – 80s?

  17. Great article! A pleasure to read with very good observations. Religion remains in culture, long after people profess to no longer believe in it. What counts is how they act the narrative out, not what they say they believe in (“implicit religion”). No one is truly atheistic, as societal values always stem from a religious and cultural system. I however believe we will see a drastic societal shift in the years to come in the West. People will refer to whatever is popular in globalized culture for the education of their children, which shifts every couple of years.

  18. Too Simplistic
    Willem of Orange was raised a Catholic, in order to inherit his Duchy from a Catholic relative.
    And the southern Netherlands (and what is now Belgium), which used to be called Flanders, is still staunchly Catholic.
    The rise and Dominance of Calvinism was mainly the North (Holland) Netherlands and it’s growth can be attributed more to Anti-Spanish attitudes and rebellion against Spain, than any Deep Theological Break,
    Spain became associated with Catholicism – and Dutch Nationalism enabled a split from these Entities.
    Now, after the success of the Rebellion against Spain and the Rule of the House of Orange-Nassau, the Political and Economic Power moved North from Flanders to the Hollandic Provinces, and the Calvinist Doctrines validated the Rule of the House of Orange.
    This disenfranchised the Catholics of the South was one of the major contributing factors to the breakaway of those Southern Dutch Provinces that joined with the Burgundian French Provinces to form the new nation of Belgium in the 1800’s.

  19. Protestantism in England was based on a King wanting to divorce his noble Queen and the coveting of monastic properties. Catholicism was brutally repressed and the poor were kicked off of monastic lands. A similar situation in Mexico occurred. The ruling families broke from the Spanish crown and threw the Indians out of the Missions seizing the lands for themselves.

  20. Great article. I am a Canadian but born in the Netherlands. I was raised in the Dutch-Calvinist immigrant culture of the Christian Reformed Church. However, we were an ethnic minority in the eastern part of Ontario. Thus, we became integrated into the culture of our adopted country. This was achieved with some difficulty which, at times included ethnic prejudice and a lack of toleration by Canadians. Tough at first but the result was full integration into Canadian culture on a personal level. Most Dutch immigrants settled in southern regions in Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia. On the whole, these immigrants have not assimilated quite as thoroughly even after 75 years. Although most quickly set aside the Dutch language, they have remained in large enclaves of Reformed churches. They rarely marry Canadians and have an arm‘s length relationship with their non-Dutch neighbours. Further, their children attend Reformed schools with limited contact with neither Canadian English or French historical peoples, nor with minority new Canadians. The result is an informal apartheid with all of its attendant disadvantages. In fact, attending any church of the now nine separate Reformed denominations in Canada has always left me feeling like a stranger. I am too Canadian. We now live in northern Ontario with nary a Dutch immigrant church group in sight. We can breathe again! Don‘t get me wrong. I still have a love for my native land, kindred, and Reformed Protestantism. But I have often wondered if this separation from Canadian culture is the result of a Calvinistic urge to remain separate from the “sinful” world. Dutch immigrants who are Catholic or married Canadians have fared much better. Thank you for this insightful and well-written article.


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